Femos Ayn - Anyo

Lesson One - Greetings



Anso / Dialogue

Malio:
Anya! Wi namo malio(1). Ti namo ko(2)?

Cono:
Anya malio, wi namo cono. To ku?

Malio:
Kalu, milo. Ce ye to(3)?

Cono:
Se, wo ye kalu(4), milo. To fe ki oyo?

Malio:
Wo fe tolonto ine kanadao. Ye to fe ki oyo?

Cono:
Wo leisa ine nuyoko, mice wo laywenu fe kalifonyo.

Malio:
To ka?

Cono:
Wo kon-omo(5). Wo kona lago.
Maria:
Hello! My name is Maria. What is your name?

John:
Hello Maria, my name is John. How are you?

Maria:
Good, thanks. And you?

John:
Yes, I am also good, thanks. Where are you from?

Maria:
I am from Toronto in Canada. And where are you from?

John:
I live in New York, but I am originally from California.

Maria:
What do you do?

John:
I am a student. I study law.

Fiomb-isalos mwe ang-cengo / Footnotes with Grammar

1. The verb “to be” does not exist in Angos. But because of the strict Subject-Verb-Object word order, the meaning of “to be” can be understood.

Wo kali – I [am] good
Wi namo cono – My name [is] John

2. Question words in Angos are placed where their answers would be in the sentence.

Ti namo ko? – What is your name?
Wi namo cono. – My name is John

3. The question particle “ce” always goes at the beginning of the clause, and will always require a affirmative or negative answer.

Ce to kali? – Are you good?

4. The particle “ye” may mean either “and” or “also”, depending on its position in the sentence.

Wo kali ye to kali – I am good and you are good
Wo ye kali – I am also good

5. Compound words can be easily recognized by the hyphen (-) that occurs between the roots. In a compound word, the first root modifies the second root.
kon-omo = student, a person who studies
Literally: kon (study) + omo (person)


In Angos, words are classified in to three main groups: numbers, particles, and roots.
  • Numbers are the simple caridnal set (1,2,3...) and end in n.
  • Particles end in e and include conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections.
  • Roots have no set ending. Nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs are all derived from roots using vowel classifiers:
Nouns end in o
Verbs end in a
Adjectives end in i
Adverbs end in u

A grammatical feature unique to Angos is the distinction between natural and man-made aspects. A man-made quality is denoted by adding an s to the end of a noun, verb, adjective, or adverb.

ango – natural language (Spanish, English)
angos – man-made language (Angos, Sindarin)


Otali Kalimo / New Words

Write down each word's part of speech

anya - hello, goodbye
ce - question marker
fe - from, of
ine - in, inside
ka - to do what action?
kalu - good, well
ki - which
kona - study
kon-omo - student
ku - how
lago - law, rule
laywenu - originally
leisa - to live (in a place)
mice - but, although
namo - name
omo - person
oyo - place
se - yes
ti - your
to - you
wi - my
wo - I
ye - and, also


Omo and Oyo

These words are used very often in compounds to denote a person (omo) who does something, or a place (oyo) where you can find something.

kon-omo (study + person) student
kon-oyos (study + place) school
lag-omo (law + person) lawyer
lag-oyos (law+place) courthouse


Cinpo-ceos / Exercises

Aksala ideos kye cimuno tongwe cimun-kalimo lae te bokaa.
Rewrite the statement as a question using the given question word.

Bokaos / Example: Malio fe tolonto. (ki)
Malio fe ki oyo?

1. Cono kona lago. (ko)



2. Ti namo malio. (ce)



3. To kona. (ka)



4. Cono ye malio kalu (ku)



5. To ye kon-omo (ce)



6. Wo ine nuyoko (ki)







Femos Don – Kafe-oyos

Lesson Two – The Café





Anso / Dialogue
Cono:
Malio, ce to desa gia de kafe-oyos?

Malio:
Se! Los(1) de ki oyo?

Cono:
Tafe kafe-oyos nife kon-oyos. Le(2) wo bisaa gia de di oyo.

...

Malio:
Fi oyo istinu meyi!

Kafe-omo:
Anya! Lotane(3), to desa nestea ko? Ce to desa kafeo?

Malio:
Nae, milo. Wo desa nestea bali cayos mwe moloko ye sugo.

Cono:
Ye wo desa ayn lafi oski(4) kafeo ye ayn panio.
John:
Maria, do you want to go to the café?

Maria:
Yes! Where is it?

John:
There is a café near the school. We can go there.

...

Maria:
This place is very pretty!

Barista:
Hello! What would you like? Do you want coffee?

Maria:
No thank you, I want a large tea with milk and sugar.

John:
And I want one small black coffee and one water.



Fiomb-isalos mwe ang-cengo / Footnotes with Grammar
1. Lo is the 3rd person pronoun, corresponding roughly to ‘he’, ‘she’, or ‘it’. In Angos, context distinguishes the gender of the subject or object.
2. Le signals the plural, and will be found immediately before a noun.
3. Lotane is used for politeness, and is roughly equivalent to ‘please’.
4. In standard Angos word order, the quantity is placed first, then the size, then color, and then the noun.


Otali Kalimo / New Words

Write down each word's part of speech

ayn - one
bali - big, large, grand
bisaa - can, be able to
cayos - tea
de - at, to, for
desa - to want, to desire
di - that
fi - this
gia - to walk, to go
istinu - very, truly
kafeos - coffee
kafe-oyos - cafe, coffee shop
lafi - small, tiny
le - plural marker
lo - he/she/it
lotane - politeness marker
meyi - pretty, beautiful
milo - thanks
moloko - milk
mwe - with
nae - no, not
nestea - to drink
nife - near
oski - dark
panio - water
tafe - there is/there are


Samac-kali Nesteo / Popular Drinks

biyalos - beer
enegi-nesteos - energy drink
gas-panios - soda
hwa-soko - fruit juice
kolaos - cola
ofosy-soko - vegetable juice
soy-moloko - soy milk
waynos - wine

To hemu nestea ko?
What do you usually drink?

Wo hemu nestea...






Femos Tin – Hawski Kodo

Lesson Three - Hobbies




Anso / Dialogue

Cono:
Ne(1) malio, to kala ka?

Malio:
Wo hemu kala kona ango mice wo ye kala wi-mekas.

Cono:
Kali! To kona ki ango?

Malio:
Wo kona cong-ango ye doyc-ango. Ye to kala ka?

Cono:
Be wo nae ma(2), wo kala gem-mekas mice wo sefe(3) kala kas-ala.

Malio:
Ce istini? To kala kas-alas ko?

Cono:
Wo bisaa kasa ofosy-alos.

Malio:
To sefame(4) kasa los de wo!
John:
So, Maria, what do you like to do?

Maria:
I usually like to study language, but I also like to watch television.

John:
Cool! Which language do you study?

Maria:
I study Chinese and German. And what do you like to do?

John:
If I’m not busy, I also like to play video games, but I most like to cook.

Maria:
Really? What do you like cook?

John:
I can make vegetarian dishes.

Maria:
You should make one for me!

Fiomb-isalos mwe ang-cengo / Footnotes with Grammar

1. The particle ne is used at the beginning of the sentence to soften the tone.

2. To say someone is busy, the verb ma is used, which translates to “doing something”. In this respect, nae ma means “not doing something” or “not busy”.

3. The superlative is formed with sefe, and can modify all parts of speech. Sefe kala is used when referring to favorites, such as in the sentence Wo sefe kala nuyoko (“I like New York most”).

4. The particle sefame is used for suggestions and is placed before the verb or noun it describes.


Otali Kalimo / New Words

be - if, when
cong-ango - Chinese language
doyc-ango - German language
gem-mekas - video game
hawski - fun, amusing
hemu - usually
istini - true, real, actual
kala - like, favor
kasa - make, produce
kas-alas - cook
kodo - activity, action
ma - do something
nae - no, not
ne - so, then, well
ofosy-alos - vegetarian dish
sefe - most, -est
sefame - suggestion particle
wi-mekas - watch television


Samac-kali Hawski Kodo / Popular Hobbies

Below are some popular hobbies. What do you like to do in your free time?

build/make things - kasas
collect - sola
dance - laksa
draw - witas
exercise - isoma
garden - mag-ten-eyfa
hunt - petas
listen to music - ela musiko
martial arts - sukob-sanata
paint - kalomas
play games/sports - gema
play music - musika
read - buka
repair things - entayas
sing - songa
write - aksalas

Wo kala....
Wo nae kala....